Saturday, August 28, 2010

Significance of SEMINAL ANALYSIS..

Hello guys, i just want to share this very informative link http://jenaisle.com/2010/08/27/seminal-analysis-and-its-significance/ made by my teachers, it tackles about common reasons why seminal analysis is performed and sometimes necessary for a diagnosis, it also include precautions in collection and processing of the specimen, very helpful to students as well as for those people that wants an information about the test. :)

For comments,suggestions,violent/violet reactions, or if you just want to have a date with me ( sure why not?) just email me at eds_cut3@yahoo.com..

i cannot able to fix my comment box. so just email me. ok?

take care always..

Tuesday, August 17, 2010


Cats giving a "THERAPEUTIC" massage.. sooo cute...

According to the book of Clinical Chemistry by Michael bishop:Therapeutic drug monitoring involves the analysis, assessment, and evaluation of circulating concentrations of drugs in whole blood plasma or serum. The main purpose of this is to make sure that a dosage of drug produce a maximum therapeutic effect and less side effects. Most of the time, the safe and effective dosage of a certain drug is fully established so therefor TDM is not needed. however some drugs the dosage and it's therapeutic effects/side effects is weak and you don't know the dose that should be used.
The standard dosage is derived from observations in a healthy population. Again TDM provides a basis for establishing a rational dosage regimen to fit individual situations.

Indications of TDM

- Drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTP) should be monitored.
example : Lithium serum concentrations of 0.8-1.2 mmol/L are effective, but 1.2-2 mmol/L may cause apathy, lethargy, muscle weakness. greater than 2 mmol/ may lead to coma, seizures. Determination of serum lithium is commonly done by ion-selective electrode. Flame emission photometry and atomic absorption methods are also used.

-Patients who have impaired clearance of a drug with a narrow therapeutic index are candidates of drug monitoring.
example: patient's with renal failure.

- Drugs whose toxicity is difficult to distinguish from a patients underlying disease may require monitoring.
example: Theopylline

- Drugs whose efficacy is difficult to establish clinically may require monitoring.
example: Phenytoin

Routes of Administration

For a drug to express a therapeutic effect, it should be at it's correct concentration. Drug can be administered by several routes. IV (intravenous),IM (intramuscular) SQ (subcutaneous). they can be inhaled or absorb through the skin (transcutaneous). Rectal delivery (suppository) is commonly used in infants and in some situations wherein oral delivery is unavailable.


For orally administered drugs, gastro intestinal tract is the one at work, however changes in intestinal motility,pH,inflammation as well as food and other drugs may greatly change the normal absorption.

First-Pass metabolism - Certain drugs are subjected to significant hepatic uptake and metabolism during passage to the liver.

reference : Clinical Chemistry principles,procedures,correlations 5th edition by
Michael L. Bishop
Edward P. Fody
Larry E. Schoeff

for comments/suggestions/violent reactions/ or if just want to have a date with me email me at

thx for reading. :)

Wednesday, July 21, 2010




A question asked to us by our teacher in clinical chemistry, so what do you think? are you in favor? kanina while in the class room my friend ask me:

Friend1: Ano favor ka?

Me:(stares at my friend) and say "Dark Mocha Frapp" <-- used to be my favorite order in starbucks.

Friend2: Laughing his A** out. and says to me "BINGE"

Friend1: Engot sabi ko favor kaba sa drug testing before admission!? hindi ko sinabing anong flavor ka!?

Me: ah.. sorry, make it clear, i thought you said "ANONG FLAVOR KA?" hehe..
anyways in my opinion i am NOT IN FAVOR of drug testing before admission.

Friend1 & 2: WHY?

Friend 3: Maybe your taking DRUGS? (laughing)

Me: Tae hindi, it depends naman, for example giving a situation wherein i am taking illegal drugs, and then i want to enter in a university that i know they do drug testing before admission, 1st of all if i already know that the school have that policy, months before ill do some research,some techniques para mag negative ang result and stop temporarily taking of drugs, para sa day ng admission mag negative ang results ng test ko, which mean it is really not effective because i can do something to evade the test. i should suggest that mag lagay nalang sila sa policy ng RANDOM DRUG TESTING after admission nalang, para unpredictable yung test, hindi mo alam kung kelan at kung sino ang itetest.

Friend 2: Actually my point ka..

Friend 4 & 5: Tara DOTA na?

Me: Dapat din ata mag lagay din itong school ng DOTA ADDICTION TESTING BEFORE ADMISSION eh..

haha.. that's all.. thx for reading..

ill go back with listening with nina's wonderful voice and pretty MUSIC. :)

For comments,suggestions,violent reactions, or if you just want to have a date with me, just email me @ eds_cut3@yahoo.com

my comment box is not working and i dun know how to fix it. t.t

Tuesday, July 6, 2010


Okay, here I am once again coming from a stressful day, feeling “TOXIC”. Yah, toxic because I came up from school, Too many things to do, appointments to make, patience to wait (especially on my slow-as-turtle-net) what else do you want to wish for? By the way maybe you are wondering about why the word TOXICOLOGY is my title. Let me give you a small introduction, toxicology is the study of adverse effects of chemicals on a living man, “side effects “ to make thing’s clear, so did you encounter toxicology in your life? If don’t remember or if you want to experience it in your life then be MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY student! Then find out for yourself. ;D

I myself encounter it almost everytime , like every man, probably you know what I mean.. when there is birthdays, special occasions or just tripping by, of course you shake up with a little spirit, ALCOHOLIC drinks! That’s what I mean. Don’t you know that when you drink a lot of alcohol you get drunk? Yah that’s the basic thing but the chemical reaction that is happening Inside of your body. Alcoholic drinks is a great anti-depressant and gives you a feeling of euphoria .

Alcohol is a harmful toxin and the organ that is responsible for detoxifying harmful substance is the liver, maybe you are wondering why is that when you drink a lot why is that you vomit a lot? Just a little trivia again, you vomit because the liver cannot detoxify the excess alcohol in the body that’s why our body will tend to get rid out of it by means of vomiting.

In the liver, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes ethanol into acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized into harmless acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. Excessive consumption of alcohol leads to a toxication-induced delayed poisoning called hangover, Various factors contribute, including the toxication of ethanol itself to acetaldehyde, the direct toxic effects and toxication of impurities called congeners, and dehydration. The hangover starts after the euphoric effects of alcohol itself have subsided, typically in the night and morning after alcoholic drinks were consumed.

So why is Alcohol toxic?

trivia again before we start, did you know that the word "toxic" came from a latin word called "intoxicare" which means "to poison". now back to the topic the alcohol when it reaches the nerve cell membranes the alcohol changes the function of nerve cells and thus affect behavior. that change in behavior is called intoxication.

It can hardly tell whether you have a over dossage of alcohol because of variations of weight, sex , and body fat. meaning if you are underweight, you are easily be get intoxicated because you have a small amount of water in the body and water in the body helps in dissolving alchol, next one is sex females are easily get intoxicated too because females have a small body area, lesser volume of blood, rather than in males.

For more understanding this table from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_alcohol_content will help you determine Blood alcohol content (BAC) and it's effects. BAC leves of 50% is very lethal for everyone.

Progressive effects of alcohol
BAC (%) Behavior Impairment
  • Average individual appears
  • Subtle effects that can be
    detected with special tests
  • Mild euphoria
  • Sense of well-being
  • Relaxation
  • Joyousness
  • Talkativeness
  • Decreased inhibition
  • Alertness
  • Judgment
  • Coordination
  • Concentration
  • Reasoning
  • Depth perception
  • Peripheral vision
  • Glare recovery
  • Over-expression
  • Emotional swings
  • Angriness or sadness
  • Boisterousness
  • Reflexes
  • Reaction time
  • Gross motor control
  • Staggering
  • Slurred speech
  • Stupor
  • Loss of understanding
  • Impaired sensations
  • Severe motor impairment
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Memory
  • General lack of behavior
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death
  • Breathing
  • Heart rate
  • Life

For better understanding you can refer to this sites




Groilers Encyclopedia : Alcoholism

Thanks for reading, take care and god bless..

okay im done..

out for a while see you later..;) muahxx

for those who wants to comment, just email your comments to eds_cut3@yahoo.com

my comment box is not working and i dont know how to fix it. -.-

Wednesday, June 9, 2010


,. So next week is what my classmates say " the sunog kilay week" don't know why? EXAMS!! who like exams? Like you, me too, but it's the way of evaluating what you have learned in the school so it's part of the school life and it's one of the most important thing that you have to accept. di bale 1 week lang naman kaya yan!! (hope so).

So i would like just to share some tips that students should do before exams:

Read early, review later = done a week before the exams, because when you read something again and again sumasaksak sa kokote mo yung mga info's, parang favorite mong kanta na ulit ulit mong pinapakinggan, diba nakaka retention? yah sige tawa lang., remember "retention is better"

Sana naman applicable sakin eto no? hirap kasi sakin puro ako discrepancy eh, oh smile ka!?? inaamin ko naman eh. hehe sa tingin mo ba anu dapat ko gawin?? share ka naman, comment ka ha? ^^, thx..muahxx hugzzzz..

Anyways, kanina... hindi ko expect na makakasama pala ako sa best bloggers, well sakin kasi after reading the other blogs of my classmates hindi ko na talaga inexpect na makakuha ng award because their blogs are sooooooo good compare to mine, from content to porma grabe I FEEL I'M PANGET na tuloy! hindi na POGI! haha

But anyways i just wanna say a BIG THANK YOU for all those who have voted me and also for those who not ( nakadagdag din naman sila kahit papano) haha. sabi nga ni lebron james nung nanalo sya ng MVP awards, " My name may be put on the front of that trophy, but
these guys have a lot to do with it," so this certificate was not only for me its

for everyone who help me get it, thanks guys..

so hanggang dito nalang muna siguro ang clin.chem break, next time academics na ulit., sige po. tulog nako.. zzzzz

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Test for Releasing Hormones...

Okay after all activities i have done from school and after school i feel so tired,dizzy,lazy, and excited for tomorrows game between the CELTICS and Lakers, yeah! it's GAME 3 of the NBA FINALS BABY!! but i also feel sad, because i will not be able to watch it live, BUT WHY OHH WHY!!? my class starts at 8 a.m to 2 p.m, and the game will start at 9 a.m -.-

By the way let me introduce this 2 guys who makes Kobe Bryant cry, in the picture they are celtics players the one who is wearing number 9 jersey is Rajon Rondo and the other one is Ray Allen, since my previous post talks about HYPOTHALAMUS and Anterior Pituitary Gland teamwork for hormone function, i like to set them as a example, Allen as the hypothalamus and
Rondo as the Antterior Pituitary gland, i set them as the example because ny just merely watching this guys play in the hardcourt, you can already define what teamwork is by just watching, well like it? i hope so..

By the way here are some test to the hormones released by the hypothalamus, this test are done to determine whether the function of hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary gland is normal, or for us to be able to know whether which of them is not working well.

TRH test

Don't know what TRH means? then read my previous post! yeah it's free, so read! so TRH test is used occasionally to determine secondary hyperthyroidism ( pituitary problems) and tertiary hyperthyroidism ( hypothalamic and pituitary problems).

Some doctors only request this test if the TSH level of the patient is normal but the patient is experiencing and has a obvious symptoms.

How this be done?

They will administer to you small amount of TRH intravenously, then after an interval of 20-30 minutes, they will get a blood sample to you and they will test your TRH, so:

  • Patients with normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) respond by
  • increasing the levels of TSH following TRH injection.
  • Patients with compromised HPA function may exhibit a delayed, blunted, or absent response to TRH administration.

Yeah, i know whats in your mind, you are thinking if there are any side effects right?

TRH may cause some patients urge to urinate, nausea and vomiting.

for better understanding about the test you may refer to this sites:

The next one is the GnRH test, It is also used to diagnose disorders in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, this test is commonly perform in children that has slow and delayed puberty and for those children with low levels of gonadotropin in the body.

Principle of the test?
Gnrh ( in case you don't know what Gnrh means, go grab your head and scroll down your mouse and read my previous post.) going back Gnrh is secreted by the hypothalamus which stimulates tha Anterior pituitary for the production of LH and FSH.

Side effects?
Administration of Gnrh causes nausea,abdominal pain and headache. Gnrh dose for children can be given 2.5 ug/kg.

Procedure of the test is you will collect 2ml of blood for LH and FSH testing, after collection immediately administer Gnrh intravascularly. After 20 minutes perform again venipuncture on the same patient, get 2 ml of blood and test for LH and FSH, by this time the results on the test should be doubled, in should be much higher than the normal values.

Normal values for children:

LH- <>
FSH- <  2.0 iu / L >

If there is an exaggerated response on the values upon testing after 20 minutes and 60 minutes there are more likely primary and secondary gonadal failure.

for more complete info's. please refer to this site:

Tuesday, May 25, 2010

The Hypothalamus and its releasing hormones

Before i begin with the topic let me share what my friend and i had talked before we eat lunch it has something to do with brains and when we talk of brains the word imagination is just 15 meters away right?
while walking to the canteen...

Me: My brain is like a stomach that has intestines around it when i'm hungry .
Friend: why?
Me: because i starve, i think eating delicious food and when you eat in your imagination the food will only go on your brain not in your stomach.
Friend: Your just hungry!, a perfect example of the brain is the heart.
Me: Why?
Friend: because when i imagine me and my crush are together i feel so inlove!
Me: Your pretty much hungry.

Hypothalamus: Part of the brain that sends information from the rest of the body and regulates most of the body's endocrine system, it acts a link between the endocrine system and the nervous system, just like the door in our library as we enter, it functions automatically by monitoring and regulating the nervous system as well as the body's homeostasis (proper metabolism) through eating (love it), drinking, temperature control (for those hot headed),sexual drives (please don't drink and DRIVE),pleasure and pain, fight or flight reactions.

It also directs hormones release by the anterior pituitary gland, so what else i did not mention? The secretion of hormones released by anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, it will then now releases a hormone which allows the anterior pituitary gland to secrete its own hormone messenger , this is carried to the blood to its target's endocrine gland which is stimulated to release its hormone into the blood. The circulating target gland hormone goes back to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland to inhibit their activity, this allows a balanced activity of the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland and also the target gland.

Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus

TRH ( Thyrotropin releasing hormone )

This stimulates the production of TSH ( thyroid stimulating hormone) and PRL ( prolactin )
from the anterior pituitary gland.

GnRH (Gonadotrophin releasing hormone)

This hormone is increased when puberty starts. This hormones helps in the sexual development for normal sexual function of both males and females.
Primary Effect: Increase in FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone)
Secondary effect: Female - increase in FSH = Estrogen and Progesterone UP.
Male - increase LH = testosterone UP.
GHRH ( Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone)

As the name indicates it stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to secrete growth hormone.

CRH ( Corticotropin releasing hormone)

Aids in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, it is secreted by the placenta and helps in the determination of duration of pregnancy, it has also a function on keeping the T cells of the mother from preventing attack to the fetus.

for better explanation please refer to this site's: